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CHAPTER VI TURNER, HAENKE, AND HUBBARD GLACIERS
General Description. On the western side of Disenchantment Bay, a few miles up the fiord is the Turner Glacier (PL XXXVI), the first of the three tidal glaciers that discharges icebergs into Yakutat Bay. It was first described and photographed by Russell in 1890 and 1891; it was photographed by Brabazon of the Canadian Boundary Survey in 1895 and by Bryant in 1897; it was again photographed and described by Gilbert in 1899, and photographed by the U. S. Fish Commission in 1901; and it was studied and photographed by us in 1905,1906,1909,1910 and 1913. We, therefore, have a more complete photographic record of the Turner Glacier than of any other in the Yakutat Bay region.
Russell saw Turner Glacier from Haenke Island1 on July 8, 1890, and September 6, 1891, and described it in this language:
"From a wild cliff-enclosed valley toward the north, guarded by towering pinnacles and massive cliffs, flows a great glacier, the fountains of which are far back in the heart of the mountains beyond the reach of vision. Having vainly sought an Indian name for this ice-stream, I concluded to christen it the Dalton glacier, in honor of John Dalton, a miner and frontiersman now living at Yakutat, who is justly considered the pioneer explorer of the region.8 The glacier is greatly shattered and pinnacled in descending its steep channel, and on reaching the sea it expands into a broad ice-foot. The last steep descent is made just before gaining the water, and is marked by crevasses and pinnacles of magnificent proportion and beautiful color. This is one of the few glaciers in the St. Elias region that has well-defined medial and lateral moraines. At the bases of the cliffs on the western side there is a broad, lateral moraine, and in the center, looking like a winding road leading up the glacier, runs a triple-banded ribbon of debris, forming a typical medial moraine. The morainal material carried by the glacier is at last deposited at its foot, or floated away by icebergs, and scattered far and wide over the bottom of Yakutat Bay.
"The glacier expands on entering the water, as is the habit of all glaciers when uncon-fined and ends in magnificent ice-cliffs some two miles in length."
Gilbert also described Turner Glacier fully in 1899,8 comparing the conditions with those in 1891, 1895 and 1901.
The description of this glacier published in our reports of the 1905 and 1906 expeditions
i Russell, I, C., Nat. Geog. Mag., Vol. HI, 1891, pp. 98-99; 18th Ann. Rept TJ. S. Geol. Survey, 1894. PI. XX, facing p. 86.
» The authors of this volume agree with this characterization, and regret the subsequent change in the name of this glacier from Dalton to Turner.
• Gilbert, G, K., Harriman Alaska Expedition, Vol. m, 1904, pp. 66-69.